Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
2015 version of Agenda 21 guideline from the United Nations https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld


Agenda 21
AKA Sustainable Development
AKA The Communist Manifesto of 1992

History
In June of 1992, the United Nations (U.N.) produced an “Agenda 21” for “sustainable development” at the U.N. Conference on Environment & Development in Rio De Janerio, Brazil.
President George H. W. Bush (Republican), saying "It is the sacred principles enshrined in the  UN Charter to which the American people will henceforth pledge their allegiance," signed it, along with 178 countries, as a legally non- binding statement of intent and not a treaty requiring ratification by the United States Senate. (U.N. Agenda 21: Environmental Piracy, Dr. Ileana Johnson Paugh, ISBN: 0615716474 and 13: 978-0615716473). 
President Bill Clinton (Democrat) signed Executive Order No. 12852, "President's Council on Sustainable Development," June 29, 1993, www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12852.pdf, which enabled the executive branch to begin the process of implementing Agenda 21 as "soft law." The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) followed on January 1, 1994. Presidents since, including George W. Bush (Republican) and Barack Obama (Democrat), through their cabinets, agencies, and U.S. tax dollars continued the process.
Most Americans have not heard of "U.N. Agenda 21." They have no idea that Agenda 21/Sustainable Development underlies Climate Change, Habitat for Humanity, Social Justice/Equity, protection of biodiversity/endangered species, Monsanto/genetically modified food, recycling, bike paths, high speed rail, and other more common names. Americans just know that something is very wrong with our government from top to bottom. In fact, even many implementing it do not know it for what it is, a plan for communism from the ground up--local to global or global to local.    

Overview
Agenda 21 (21 for 21st Century) depicts the environmentalists’ and feminists' version of the Marxist “utopia” of communism. It describes sharing the wealth with developing countries at the expense and loss of the middle class in developed countries. Its implementation by the United Nations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) is to nullify such as the U.S. Constitution and result in a global society with a central government that dictates where everyone lives, what they eat, when they move, as well as what resources or energy sources they may use. Since the plan is consistent with the Communist Manifesto of 1848, I refer to it as the Communist Manifesto of 1992.

FreedomAdvocates.org
According to the Freedom Advocates online white paper and pamphlet, last revised in 2012, “Understanding Sustainable Development -- Agenda 21: For the People and their Public Officials,” the United Nations accredited more than 2000 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to implement Agenda 21 in America, for which the U.S. government gives them massive tax advantages. The list of NGOs includes the Nature Conservancy, the Sierra Club, the National Audubon Society, the American Planning Association, the National Teachers Association, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and the American Farm Bureau Federation (formerly known as the U.S. Farm Bureau). The map titled “Simulated Reserve and Corridor System to Protect Diversity” shows how the U.S. will be 50% uninhabited after rural control through the Wildlands Network (AKA Wildlands Project) and urban control through Smart Growth (AKA “comprehensive planning” or “growth management”) are in place.
A major component to the creation of the desired North American Union (NAU), with political-economic equalization of Mexico, Canada, and the United States, is the development of the Trans-Texas Corridor by multi-national corporations in “public/private partnership” with government/s.

I now refer to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as the U.N. Chamber of Commerce and the formerly known as U.S. Farm Bureau as the U.N. Farm Bureau.

More information at www.FreedomAdvocates.org and www.AmericanPolicy.org 

1992
AUTHOR(S) UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT & DEVELOPMENT RIO DE JANERIO, BRAZIL, 3 TO 14 JUNE 1992 published Agenda 21: Earth Summit: The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio

348 pages (p.)

40 chapters (Ch.)

Chapters consist of one or more Program Areas.

Program Area content follows the general outline of:
Basis for Action
Objectives
Activities
(a) Management-related activities
(b) Data and information
(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination
Means of Implementation
(a) Financing and cost evaluation
(b) Scientific and technological means
(c) Human resource development
(d) Capacity-building


Four Sections (like the Communist Manifesto of 1848)

SECTION I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS (Ch. 2-8/p. 2-73)

SECTION II. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT (Ch. 9-22/p. 74-267)

SECTION III. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS (Ch. 23-32/p. 268-297)

SECTION IV. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION (Ch. 33-40/p. 298-348)



Paragraphs (para.) are numbered by Ch. and in sequence.




Outline of Agenda 21 with Excerpts (italics & bold type added by DSV)

Ch. 1 PREAMBLE (p. 1/para. 1.1-1.6)
1.1 Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. We are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. However, integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the fulfilment [sic] of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but together we can - in a global partnership for sustainable development.
1.2 This global partnership must build on premises of General Assembly resolution 44/228 of 22 December 1989, which was adopted when the nations of the world called for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and on the acceptance of the need to take a balanced and integrated approach to environment and development questions.
1.3 . . . . . Its successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments. . . . United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and subregional organizations . . . contribute . . . . active involvement of the non-governmental organizations. . . .
1.4 . . . . will require a substantial flow of new and additional financial resources to developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for the actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate sustainable development. . . .*When the term "Governments" is used, it will be deemed to include the European Economic Community within its area of competence. Throughout Agenda 21 the term "environmentally sound" means "environmentally safe and sound", in particular when applied to the terms "energy sources", "energy supplies", "energy systems" and "technology" or "technologies".


SECTION I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS (Ch. 2-8/p. 2-73)

Ch. 2. International Cooperation to Accelerate Sustainable Development in Developing Countries and Related Domestic Policies (p. 2-11/para. 2.1-2.43)
2.1 inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world economy
2.2 if the developing countries are weighted down by external indebtedness, if development finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if commodity prices and the terms of trade of developing countries remain depressed. The record of the 1980's was essentially negative on each of these counts and needs to be reversed.
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Promoting sustainable development through trade (p. 2)
B.Making trade and environment mutually supportive (p. 6)
C.Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries (p. 7)
D.Encouraging economic policies conducive to sustainable development (p. 9)

Ch. 3. Combating Poverty (p. 12-15/para. 3.1-3.12)
One Program Area
Enabling the poor to achieve sustainable livelihoods (p. 12)
3.1 country-specific programs to tackle poverty. . . . The eradication of poverty and hunger, greater equity in income distribution and human resource development
3.5. c. reduce the inequalities between various population groups

Ch. 4. Changing Consumption Patterns (p. 16-20/para. 4.1-4.27)
Two Program Areas (A&B)
A. Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption (p. 16)
4.5 Although consumption patterns are very high in certain parts of the world, the basic consumer needs of a large section of humanity are not being met. This results in excessive demands and unsustainable lifestyles among the richer segments, which place immense stress on the environment. The poorer segments, meanwhile, are unable to meet food, health care, shelter and educational needs.
B. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption patterns (p. 18)
4.19 a. Encouraging recycling in industrial programs and at the consumer level.

Ch. 5. Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability (p. 21-28/para. 5.1-5.66)
Three Program Areas (A-C)
A.Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development (p. 21)
5.3 The growth of world population and production combined with unsustainable consumption patterns places increasingly severe stress on the life-supporting capacities of our planet. . . .
5.4 There is a need to develop strategies to mitigate both the adverse impact on the environment of human activities and the adverse impact of environmental change on human populations. The world's population is expected to exceed 8 billion by the year 2020. Sixty per cent of the world's population already live in coastal areas, while 65 per cent of cities with populations above 2.5 million are located along the world coasts; several of them are already at or below the present sea level.
B.Formulating integrated national policies for environment and development, taking into account demographic trends and factors (p. 23)
C.Implementing integrated environment and development programs at the local level, taking into account demographic trends and factors (p. 25)

Ch. 6. Protecting and Promoting Human Health Conditions (p. 29-42/para. 6.1-6.46)
Five Program Areas (A-E)
A.Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas (p. 29)
B.Control of communicable diseases (p. 31)
C.Protecting vulnerable groups (p. 34)
D.Meeting the urban health challenge (p. 37)
E.Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards (p. 39)

Ch. 7. Promoting Sustainable Human Settlement Development (p. 43-61/para. 7.1-7.80)
7.1 In industrialized countries, the consumption patterns of cities are severely stressing the global ecosystem, while settlements in the developing world need more raw material, energy, and economic development simply to overcome basic economic and social problems.
7.3 This is the foundation of the “enabling approach” advocated for the human settlement sector. External assistance will help to generate the internal resources . . . . with high priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number of people without any source of income.
Eight Program Areas (A-H)
A.Providing adequate shelter for all (p. 44)
7.6 The right to adequate housing as a basic human right
7.12 Developed countries and funding agencies should provide specific assistance to developing countries in adopting an enabling approach to the provision of shelter for all, including the no-income group
B.Improving human settlement management (p. 45)
7.20 b. “green works” programs should be activated to create self-sustaining human development
7.21. Cities of all countries should reinforce cooperation among themselves and cities of the developed countries, under the aegis of non-governmental organizations active in the field, such as the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities.
C.Promoting sustainable land - use planning and management (p. 48)
D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management (p. 50)
E.Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements (p. 52)
7.52 b. Adopt urban-transport programs favouring high-occupancy public transport in countries
7.52 c. Encourage non-motorized modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and footways in urban and suburban centres
7.52 f. Re-evaluate the present consumption and production patterns in order to reduce the use of energy and national resources.
F.Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas (p. 54)
G.Promoting sustainable construction industry activities (p. 57)
H.Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlement development (p. 59)
     
Ch. 8. Integrating Environment and Development in Decision-Making 
(p. 62-73/para. 8.1-8.54)
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and management levels (p. 62)
B.Providing an effective legal and regulatory framework (p. 65)
C.Making effective use of economic instruments and market and other incentives (p. 68)
8.28.  During the past several years, many Governments, primarily in industrialized countries but also in Central and Eastern Europe and in developing countries, have been making increasing use of economic approaches, including those that are market-oriented. Examples include the polluter-pays principle and the more recent natural-resource-user-pays concept.
8.31 a. To incorporate environmental costs in the decisions of producers and consumers, to reverse the tendency to treat the environment as a "free good" and to pass these costs on to other parts of society, other countries, or to future generations.
D.Establishing systems for integrated environmental and economic accounting (p. 71)


SECTION II. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT (Ch. 9-22/p. 74-267)

Ch. 9. Protection of the Atmosphere (p. 74-82/para. 9.1-9.35)
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Addressing the uncertainties: improving the scientific basis for decision-making (p. 74)
B.Promoting sustainable development:
i. Energy development, efficiency and consumption (p. 75);
9.9 . . . Much of the world’s energy . . . is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technology were to remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. The need to control atmospheric emissions of greenhouse and other gases and substances will increasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption, and on growing reliance on environmentally sound energy systems, particularly new and renewable sources of energy.
9.12 k. Encourage education and awareness-raising programs at the local, national, subregional and regional levels
ii. Transportation (p. 77);
iii. Industrial development (p. 78);
iv. Terrestrial and marine resource development and land use (p. 79).
C.Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion (p. 79)
D.Transboundary atmospheric pollution (p. 80)

Ch. 10. Integrated Approach to the Planning and Management of Land Resources (p. 83-88/para. 10.1-10.18)
One Program Area
Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources (p. 83)

Ch. 11. Combating Deforestation (p. 89-101/para. 11.1-11.40)
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Sustaining the multiple roles and functions of all types of forests, forest lands and woodlands (p. 89)
11.3 c. . . promoting adequate legislation and other measures as a basis against uncontrolled conversion to other types of land uses;
B.Enhancing the protection, sustainable management and conservation of all forests, and the greening of degraded areas, through forest rehabilitation, afforestation, reforestation and other rehabilitative means (p. 91)
C.Promoting efficient utilization and assessment to recover the full valuation of the goods and services provided by forests, forest lands and woodlands (p. 95)
D.Establishing and/or strengthening capacities for the planning, assessment and systematic observations of forests and related programs, projects and activities, including commercial trade and processes (p. 99)

Ch. 12. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Combating Desertification and Drought (p. 102-116/para.12.1-12.63)
12.1 . . Fragile ecosystems include deserts, semi-arid lands, mountains, wetlands, small islands and certain coastal areas. . . .
12.2 Desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. . . .
Six Program  Areas (A-F)
A.Strengthening the knowledge base and developing information and monitoring systems for regions prone to desertification and drought, including the economic and social aspects of these ecosystems (p. 102)
12.7 b. Strengthen national, state/provincial and local assessment and ensure cooperation/networking between existing environmental information and monitoring systems, such as Earthwatch and the Sahara and Sahel Observatory;
B.Combating land degradation through, inter alia, intensified soil conservation, afforestation and reforestation activities (p. 105)
C.Developing and strengthening integrated development programs for the eradication of poverty and promotion of alternative livelihood systems in areas prone to desertification (p. 108)
D.Developing comprehensive anti-desertification programs and integrating them into national development plans and national environmental planning (p. 110)
E.Developing comprehensive drought preparedness and drought-relief schemes, including self-help arrangements, for drought-prone areas and designing programs to cope with environmental refugees (p. 112)
F.Encouraging and promoting popular participation and environmental education, focusing on desertification control and management of the effects of drought (p. 114)

Ch. 13. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Sustainable Mountain Development (p. 117-122/para. 13.1-13.24)
Two Program Areas (A&B)
A.Generating and strengthening knowledge about the ecology and sustainable development of mountain ecosystems (p. 117)
B.Promoting integrated watershed development and alternative livelihood opportunities (p. 120)

Ch. 14. Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
(p. 123-146/para. 14.1-14.103—missing 14.104)
Twelve Program Areas (A-L)
A.Agricultural policy review, planning and integrated programming in the light of the multifunctional aspect of agriculture, particularly with regard to food security and sustainable development (p. 124)
B.Ensuring people's participation and promoting human resource development for sustainable agriculture (p. 126)
C.Improving farm production and farming systems through diversification of farm and non-farm employment and infrastructure development (p. 128)
D.Land-resource planning information and education for agriculture (p. 130)
E.Land conservation and rehabilitation (p. 133)
F.Water for sustainable food production and sustainable rural development (p. 135)
G.Conservation and sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources for food and sustainable agriculture (p. 135)
H.Conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources for sustainable agriculture (p. 137)
I.Integrated pest management and control in agriculture (p. 139)
J.Sustainable plant nutrition to increase food production (p. 141)
K.Rural energy transition to enhance productivity (p. 144)
L.Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on plants and animals caused by the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer (p. 145)

Ch. 15. Conservation of Biological Diversity (p. 147-151/para. 15.1-15.11)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 16. Environmentally Sound Management of Biotechnology
(p. 152-165/para. 16.1-16.45—missing 16.46)
Five Program Areas (A-E)
A.Increasing the availability of food, feed and renewable raw materials (p. 152)
B.Improving human health (p. 155)
C.Enhancing protection of the environment (p. 158)
D.Enhancing safety and developing international mechanisms for cooperation (p. 161)
E.Establishing enabling mechanisms for the development and the environmentally sound application of biotechnology (p. 162)

Ch. 17. Protection of the Oceans, All Kinds of Seas, Including Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas, and Coastal Areas and the Protection, Rational Use and Development of their Living Resources (p. 166-193/para. 17.1-17.136)
Seven Program Areas (A-G)
A.Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including exclusive economic zones (p. 166)
B.Marine environmental protection (p. 170)
C.Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources of the high seas (p. 176)
D.Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources under national jurisdiction (p. 180)
17.77 States should ensure that marine living resources of the exclusive economic zone and other areas under national jurisdiction are conserved and managed in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
E.Addressing critical uncertainties for the management of the marine environment and climate change (p. 185)
F.Strengthening international, including regional, cooperation and coordination (p. 188)
G.Sustainable development of small islands (p. 191)

Ch. 18. Protection of the Quality and Supply of Freshwater Resources: Application of Integrated Approaches to the Development, Management and Use of Water Resources (p. 194-223/para. 18.1-18.90)
Seven Program Areas (A-G)
A.Integrated water resources development and management (p. 194)
B.Water resources assessment (p. 199)
C.Protection of water resources, water quality and aquatic ecosystems (p. 202)
D.Drinking-water supply and sanitation (p. 207)
E.Water and sustainable urban development (p. 211)
F.Water for sustainable food production and rural development (p. 214)
G.Impacts of climate change on water resources (p. 221)

Ch. 19. Environmentally Sound Management of Toxic Chemicals, Including Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Toxic and Dangerous Products (p. 224-238/para. 19.1-19.76)
Six Program Areas (A-F)
A.Expanding and accelerating international assessment of chemical risks (p. 225)
B.Harmonization of classification and labelling of chemicals (p. 228)
C.Information exchange on toxic chemicals and chemical risks (p. 229)
D.Establishment of risk reduction programs (p. 231)
E.Strengthening of national capabilities and capacities for management of chemicals (p. 234)
F.Prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products (p. 237)

Ch. 20. Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes, Including Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Hazardous Wastes (p. 239-251/para. 20.1-20.46)
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Promoting the prevention and minimization of hazardous waste (p. 240)
B.Promoting and strengthening institutional capacities in hazardous waste management (p. 244)
C.Promoting and strengthening international cooperation in the management of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes (p. 248)
D.Preventing illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes (p. 250)

Ch. 21. Environmentally Sound Management of Solid Wastes and Sewage-Related Issues (p. 252-264/para. 21.1-21.49)
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Minimizing wastes (p. 252)
B.Maximizing environmentally sound waste reuse and recycling (p. 255)
C.Promoting environmentally sound waste disposal and treatment (p. 258)
D.Extending waste service coverage (p. 261)

Ch. 22. Safe and Environmentally Sound Management of Radioactive Wastes (p. 265-267/para. 22.1-22.9)
One Program Area
Promoting the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes (p. 265)


SECTION III. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS (Ch. 23-32/p. 268-297)

Ch. 23. PREAMBLE (p. 268/para. 23.1-23.4)

Ch. 24. Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development (p. 269-272/para. 24.1-24.12)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 25. Children and Youth in Sustainable Development (p. 273-276/para. 25.1-25.17)
Two Program Areas (A&B)
A.Advancing the role of youth and actively involving them in the protection of the environment and the promotion of economic and social development (p. 273)
B.Children in sustainable development (p. 274)

Ch. 26. Recognizing and Strengthening the Role of Indigenous People and Their Communities (p. 277-279/para. 26.1-26.9)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 27. Strengthening the Role of Non-Governmental Organizations: Partners for Sustainable Development (p. 280-282/para. 27.1-27.13)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)
27.1 Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a vital role in the shaping and implementation of participatory democracy. Their credibility lies in the responsible and constructive role they play in society. Formal and informal organizations, as well as grass-roots movements, should be recognized as partners in the implementation of Agenda 21. The nature of the independent role played by non-governmental organizations within a society calls for real participation; therefore, independence is a major attribute of non-governmental organizations and is the precondition of real participation.
27.2 One of the major challenges facing the world community as it seeks to replace unsustainable development patterns with environmentally sound and sustainable development is the need to activate a sense of common purpose on behalf of all sectors of society. . . .
27.4 . . . . (NGOs) will also need to foster cooperation and communication among themselves to reinforce their effectiveness as actors in the implementation of sustainable development.
27.10 Governments should take measures to:
27.10 c. Involve (NGOs) in national mechanisms or procedures established to carry out Agenda 21, making the best use of their particular capacities, especially in the fields of education, poverty alleviation and environmental protection and rehabilitation;
27.11 . . . . (NGOs) will also require additional funding in support of their establishment of, improvement of or contributions to Agenda 21 monitoring systems.

Ch. 28. Local Authorities’ Initiatives in Support of Agenda 21 (p. 283-284/para. 28.1-28.7)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 29. Strengthening the Role of Workers and Their Trade Unions (p. 285-286/para. 29.1-29.14)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)
29.1 . . . . The existing network of collaboration among trade unions and their extensive membership provide important channels through which the concepts and practices of sustainable development can be supported. The established principles of tripartism provide a basis for strengthened collaboration between workers and their representatives, Governments and employers in the implementation of sustainable development.
29.5 Governments, business and industry should promote the active participation of workers and their trade unions in decisions on the design, implementation and evaluation of national and international policies and programs on environment and development, including employment policies, industrial strategies, labour adjustment programs and technology transfers.
29.7 Joint (employer/worker) or tripartite (employer/worker/Government) collaborative mechanisms at the workplace, community and national levels should be established to deal with safety, health and environment, including special reference to the rights and status of women in the workplace.
29.11 Trade unions should:
29.11 a. Seek to ensure that workers are able to participate in environmental audits at the workplace and in environmental impact assessments.
29.11 b. Participate in environment and development activities within the local community and promote joint action on potential problems of common concern;
29.11 c. Play an active role in the sustainable development activities of international and regional organizations, particularly within the United Nations system.

Means of implementation
(b) Capacity-building
29.14 Particular attention should be given to strengthening the capacity of each of the tripartite social partners (Governments and employers’ and workers’ organizations) to facilitate greater collaboration towards sustainable development.

Ch. 30. Strengthening the Role of Business and Industry (p. 287-290/para. 30.1-30.30)
Two Program Areas (A&B)
A.Promoting cleaner production (p.287)
B.Promoting responsible entrepreneurship (p. 289)

Ch. 31. Scientific and Technological Community (p. 291-294/para. 31.1-31.12)
Two Program Areas (A&B)
A.Improving communication and cooperation among the scientific and technological community, decision makers and the public (p. 291)
B.Promoting codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology (p. 293)

Ch. 32. Strengthening the Role of Farmers (p. 295-297/para. 32.1-32.14)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)
32.1 Agriculture occupies one third of the land surface of the Earth, and is the central activity for much of the world’s population. Rural activities take place in close contact with nature, adding value to it by producing renewable resources, while at the same time becoming vulnerable to overexploitation and improper management.
32.2 The rural household, indigenous people and their communities, and the family farmer, a substantial number of whom are women, have been the stewards of much of the Earth’s resources. . . . there is a growing concern about the sustainability of agricultural production systems.
32.3 A farmer-centered approach is the key to the attainment of sustainability in both developed and developing counties and many of the program areas in Agenda 21 address this objective.
32.4 The sustainable development of people in marginal and fragile ecosystems is also addressed in Agenda 21. The key to the successful implementation of these programs lies in the motivation and attitudes of individual farmers and government policies that would provide incentives to farmers to manage their natural resources efficiently and in a sustainable way. Farmers, particularly women, face a high degree of economic, legal and institutional uncertainties when investing in their land and other resources. The decentralization of decision-making towards local and community organizations is the key in changing people’s behaviour and implementing sustainable farming strategies. This program area deals with activities which can contribute to this end.

Activities
(a) Management-related activities
32.6 National governments should:
32.6 a. Ensure the implementation of the programs on sustainable livelihoods, agriculture and rural development, managing fragile ecosystems, water use in agriculture, and integrated management of natural resources;
32.6 b. Promote pricing mechanisms, trade policies, fiscal incentives and other policy instruments that positively affect individual farmer’s decisions about an efficient and sustainable use of natural resources, and take full account of the impact of these decisions on household food security, farm incomes, employment and the environment.

Capacity-building
32.14 Governments should, in the light of each country’s specific situation:
32.14 a. Create the institutional and legal mechanisms to ensure effective land tenure to farmers. The absence of legislation indicating land rights has been an obstacle in taking action against land degradation in many farming communities in developing countries.

*In this chapter, all references to “farmers” include all rural people who derive their livelihood from activities such as farming, fishing and forest harvesting. The term “farming” also includes fishing and forest harvesting.


SECTION IV. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION (Ch. 33-40/p. 298-348)

Ch. 33. Financial Resources and Mechanisms (p. 298-302/para. 33.1-33.21)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 34. Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology, Cooperation and Capacity-Building (p. 303-308/para. 34.1-34.29)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 35. Science for Sustainable Development (p. 309-317/para. 35.1-35.25)
Four Program Areas (A-D)
A.Strengthening the scientific basis for sustainable management (p. 310)
B.Enhancing scientific understanding (p. 312)
C.Improving long-term scientific assessment (p. 314)
D.Building up scientific capacity and capability (p. 315)

Ch. 36. Promoting Education, Public Awareness and Training (p. 318-326/para. 36.1-36.27)
Three Program Areas (A-C)
A.Reorienting education towards sustainable development (p. 318)
B.Increasing public awareness (p. 322)
C.Promoting training (p. 324)

Ch. 37. National Mechanisms and International Cooperation for Capacity-Building in Developing Countries (p. 327-331/para. 37.1-37.13)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 38. International Institutional Arrangements (p. 332-340/para. 38.1-38.45)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)

Ch. 39. International Legal Instruments and Mechanisms (p. 341-343/para. 39.1-39.10)
One Program Area (Ch. Title)       

Ch. 40. Information for Decision-Making (p. 344-348/para. 40.1-40.30)
Two Program Areas (A&B)
A.Bridging the data gap (p. 344)
B.Improving availability of information (p. 346)

END of Agenda 21 OUTLINE

(inter alia= among other things)


GLOSSARY for ABBREVIATIONS that inhibit understanding
(with one or more example para. for reference)

ACC    Administrative Committee on Coordination (38.17)
ACCIS    Advisory Committee for the Coordination of Information Systems (40.24)
ACMAD     African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development (12.50b)
AGRHYMET     Agrometeorology and Operational Hydrology and their Applications (12.50b)
APELL    Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (19.47)
ASCEND 21    Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century (35.4)
CDP     City Data Program (7.80.5)
CFCs     chlorofluorocarbons (9.16)
CGIAR     Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (11.33d)
CIDIE    Committee of International Development Institutions on Environment (38.17)
CI LSS  and CILSS   Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel (12.10a)
DOEM    Designated Officials for Environmental Matters (38.17)
DNA     Deoxyribonucleic Acid (16.1)
EC    European Communities (19.6)
ECE    Economic Commission for Europe (19.61c)
EDI    Electronic Data Interchange (2.8)
EEZ    Exclusive Economic Zone (17.3)
EMINWA    Environmentally Sound Management of Inland Waters (18.39d)
FAO    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (19.14a)
FAO/ICES   International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (17.92)
GATT    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade framework (19.36)
GEMS    Global Environmental Monitoring System (40.13)
GEMS/WATER    Global Water Quality Monitoring Program (18.39d)
GESAMP    Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (17.120c)
GIS    Geographical Information Systems (17.128d)
GMO   Genetically Modified Organism/Food (see www.gmofilm.com)
GNP    Gross National Product (40.4)
GSP    Generalized System of Preferences of United States (2.8)
GRID    Global Resource Information Database (18.43) (40.13)
HABITAT     United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (7.9h) (21.31)
IAEA    International Atomic Energy Agency (22.4b)
IARC    International Agency for Research on Cancer (19.39)
IAP-WASAD    International Action Program on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development (18.69)
IBSRAM     International Board for Soil Research and Management (13.18a)
ICC    International Chamber of Commerce (30.10b)
ICCA    International Council of Chemical Associations (19.47)
ICLEI     International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (7.21)
ICIMOD     International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (13.8b)
ICPIC    International Cleaner Production Clearing House (30.16)
ICSCs    International Chemical Safety Cards (19.24)
IDAInternational  Development Association (7.1) (33.14ai.)
IEB    International Environment Bureau of ICC (30.16)
IEEA   Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (8.42)
IFAD    International Fund for Agricultural Development (14.11)
IGADD     Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (12.10a)
I GBP    International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (18.87)
IGBP/START    International Geosphere-Biosphere Program/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training network (18.88)
ILO    International Labour Organisation (19.6) (24.1) (26.2)
IMF    International Monetary Fund (2.30)
IMO    International Maritime Organization (19.29)
IMS     International Mountain Society (13.8b)
INFOTERRA    International Environmental Information System (40.24)
INSTRAW    International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (24.9)
INTIB     Industrial and Technological Information Bank of UNIDO (30.16)
IOC    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (17.101)
IPM     Integrated Pest Management (14.77b)
IPCC    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (18.87)
IPCS    International Program on Chemical Safety (19.6)
IRPTC    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (19.18)
ITC    International Trade Centre (joint agency of the World Trade Organization and the United Nations)
ITTO    International Tropical Timber Organization (11.22.k)
IUCN    International Union for Conservation of Nature (11.1)
IULA     International Union of Local Authorities (7.21)
LANDEP     Landscape Ecological Planning (10.7a)
LISA     Low-Input Sustainable Agricultural Systems (14.9e)
MARPOL     Marine Pollution (17.30aiii)
ODA   Official Development Assistance (33.13)
OECD    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (19.6)
PAHs     Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (17.18)
PEC     Primary Environmental Care (10.7b)
PGRFA     Plant Genetic Resources for Agriculture (14.53)
PIC    Prior Informed Consent (19.36)
SADCC     Southern African Development Coordination Conference (12.10a)
SARD Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (14.2)
TEMA    Training, Education and Mutual Assistance (17.102)
UNCED    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (36.5o)
UNCTAD    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (34.18evi.)
UNDP     United Nations Development Program (7.16) (7.31)
UNDRO     Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (12.50d)
UNEP     United Nations Environment Program (12.5) (19.36)
UNEP/ESCAP    Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (19.73) (20.45)
UNESCO    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (24.1)
UNICEF    United Nations Children's Fund (24.11) (25.15)
UNIDO    United Nations Industrial Development Organization (30.5) (30.16)
UNIFEM    United Nations Development Fund for Women (24.9)
UNSO    United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office (38.27)
UNU     United Nations University (13.8b)
WFP     World Food Program (12.50d)
WMI     Woodland Mountain Institutes (13.8b)
WHO    World Health Organization (19.6)
WMO  World Meteorological Organization (12.50b)

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